Advertisement

Contemporary Anesthetic Evaluation and Management for Electroconvulsive Therapy

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Advances in Anesthesia
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Gaynes B.N.
        Benefits of electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4: e2116674
        • Espinoza R.T.
        • Kellner C.H.
        Electroconvulsive therapy.
        N Engl J Med. 2022; 387: 667-672
        • Lava-Parmele S.
        • Lava C.
        • Parmele J.B.
        The historical struggles of modified electroconvulsive therapy: how anesthesia came to the rescue.
        J Anesth Hist. 2021; 7: 17-25
        • Rönnqvist I.
        • Nilsson F.K.
        • Nordensköjld
        Electroconvulsive therapy and risk of suicide in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4: e2116589
        • Slade E.P.
        • Jahn D.R.
        • Regenold W.T.
        • et al.
        Association of electroconvulsive therapy with psychiatric readmissions in US hospitals.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2017; 74: 798-804
        • Ross E.L.
        • Zivin K.
        • Maixner D.F.
        Cost-effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy vs pharmacotherapy for treatment resistant depression in the United Sates.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2018; 75: 713-722
        • Chan C.Y.W.
        • Abdin E.
        • Seow E.
        • et al.
        Clinical effectiveness and speed of response of electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019; 73: 416-422
        • Sackeim H.A.
        Modern electroconvulsive therapy; vastly improved yet greatly underutilized.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2017; 74: 779-780
        • Bryson E.O.
        • Aloysi A.S.
        • Farber K.G.
        • et al.
        Individualized anesthetic management.
        Anesth Analg. 2017; 124: 1943-1956
        • Saoti S.
        Anesthesia management for electroconvulsive therapy: hemodynamic and respiratory management.
        J Anesth. 2005; 19: 142-149
        • Shah A.J.
        • Wadoo O.
        • Latoo J.
        Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): important parameters which influence its effectiveness.
        BJMP. 2013; : a634
        • Aloysi A.S.
        • Bryson E.O.
        • Kellner C.H.
        Management of prolonged seizures during electroconvulsive therapy.
        Indian J Psychol Med. 2014; 36: 220-221
        • Hermida A.P.
        • Moshin M.
        • Pinheiro A.P.M.
        • et al.
        The cardiovascular effects of electroconvulsive therapy and their management.
        J ECT. 2022; 38: 2-9
        • Suzuki Y.
        • Miyajima M.
        • Ohta K.
        • et al.
        A triphasic change of cardiac autonomic activity during electroconvulsive therapy.
        J ECT. 2015; 31: 186-191
        • Hartnett S.
        • Rex S.
        • Sienaert
        Asystole during electroconvulsive therapy: does electro placement matter? A systematic review.
        J ECT. 2022; 00 (online ahead of print)
        • Burd J.
        • Kettl P.
        Incidence of asystole in electroconvulsive therapy in elderly patients.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1998; 6: 203-211
        • Wells D.G.
        • Davies G.G.
        Hemodynamic changes associated with ECT.
        Anesth Analg. 1987; 66: 1193-1195
        • Bryson E.O.
        • Popeo D.
        • Briggs M.
        • et al.
        Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with cardiac disease.
        J ECT. 2013; 29: 76-77
        • Bhat S.K.
        • Acosta D.
        • Schwartz C.M.
        Postictal asystole during ECT.
        J ECT. 2002; 18: 103-106
        • Vollmer-Haase J.
        • Folkerts H.W.
        • Haase C.G.
        • et al.
        Cerebral hemodynamics during electrically induced seizures.
        Neuroreport. 1998; 16: 407-410
        • Saito S.
        • Yoshikawa D.
        • Nishihara F.
        • et al.
        The cerebral hemodynamic response to electrically induced seizures in man.
        Brain Res. 1995; 673: 93-100
        • Tess A.V.
        • Smetana G.W.
        Medical evaluation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 360: 1437-1444
        • Sunsted K.K.
        • Burton M.C.
        • Shah R.
        • et al.
        Preanesthesia medical evaluation for electroconvulsive therapy: a review of the literature.
        J ECT. 2014; 30: 35-42
        • Hajak V.L.
        • Hajak G.
        • Ziegelmayer C.
        • et al.
        Risk assessment of electroconvulsive therapy in clinical routine: a 3-year analysis of life-threatening events in more than 3,000 treatment sessions.
        Front Psychol. 2021; 23: 12767915
        • Kaster T.L.
        • Vigod S.N.
        • Gomes T.
        • et al.
        Risk of serious medical events in patients with depression treated with electroconvulsive therapy: a propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study.
        Lancet Psychiatry. 2021; 8: 686-695
        • Duma A.
        • Malcecsek M.
        • Panjikara B.
        • et al.
        Major adverse cardiac events and morality associated with electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Anesthesiology. 2019; 130: 83-91
        • Nordenskjöld A.
        • Güney P.
        • Nordenskjöld A.M.
        Major adverse cardiovascular events following electroconvulsive therapy in depression: a register-based nationwide Swedish cohort study with 1-year follow-up.
        J Affect Disord. 2022; 296: 298-303
      1. Practice Advisory for the Perioperative Management of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators 2020: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Management of Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.
        Erratum Anesthesiology. 2020; 132: 225-252
        • Buday J.
        • Albrecht J.
        • Mares T.
        • et al.
        Brain tumors and electroconvulsive therapy: a literature overview of the last 80 years.
        Front Neurol. 2020; 11: 723
        • Van Herck E.
        • Sienart P.
        • Hagon A.
        Electroconvulsive therapy for patients with intracranial aneurysms: a case study and literature review.
        Tijdschr Psychiatry. 2009; 51: 43-51
        • Salaris S.
        • Szuba M.P.
        • Traber K.
        ECT and intracranial vascular mass.
        J ECT. 2000; 16: 198-203
        • Patkar A.A.
        • Hill K.P.
        • Weinstein S.P.
        • et al.
        ECT in the presence of brain tumor and increased intracranial pressure: evaluation and reduction of risk.
        J ECT. 2000; 16: 189-197
        • Currier M.B.
        • Murray G.B.
        • Welch C.C.
        Electroconvulsive therapy for post-stroke depressed patients.
        J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992; 4: 140-144
        • Peroski M.S.
        • Xhu M.M.
        • Doddi S.R.
        • et al.
        The safety of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with implanted deep brain stimulators: a review of the literature and case reports.
        J ECT. 2019; 35: 84-90
        • Cochlear
        Nucleus cochlear implants important information for Cochlear implant recipients.
        (Available at:) (Accessed June 24 2022)
        • Albertson L.N.
        • Lauridsen J.K.
        A review of electroconvulsive therapy in cochlear implant patients.
        J ECT. 2022; 38: 10-12
        • Gahr M.
        • Connemann
        • Freudenmann R.W.
        • et al.
        Safety of electroconvulsive therapy in the presence of cranial metallic objects.
        J ECT. 2014; 30: 62-68
        • Yonkers K.A.
        • Wisner K.L.
        • Stewart D.E.
        • et al.
        The management of depression during pregnancy: a report from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
        Obstet Gyncol. 2009; 114: 703-713
        • Rose S.
        • Dotters-Katz
        • kuller J.A.
        Electroconvulsive therapy in pregnancy: safety, best practices, and barriers to care.
        Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2020; 75: 199-203
        • Calaway K.
        • Coshal S.
        • Jones K.J.
        • et al.
        A systematic review of the safety of electroconvulsive therapy use during the first trimester of pregnancy.
        J ECT. 2016; 32: 230-235
        • Salzbrenner S.
        • Breeden A.
        • Jarvis S.
        • et al.
        A 48-year-old woman primigravid via in vitro fertilization with severe bipolar depression and preeclampsia treated successfully with electroconvulsive therapy.
        J ECT. 2011; 27: e1-e3
        • Ward H.B.
        • Fromson J.A.
        • Cooper J.J.
        • et al.
        Recommendations for the use of ECT in pregnancy; literature review and proposed clinical protocol.
        Arch Women’s Health. 2018; 21: 7145-7722
        • Mehta V.
        • Mueller P.S.
        • Gonzalez-Arriaza H.L.
        • et al.
        Safety of electroconvulsive therapy in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2002; 79: 1396-1401
        • Hirata T.
        • Yasuda K.
        • Uemura T.
        • et al.
        Electroconvulsive therapy while receiving oral anticoagulation for deep venous thrombosis: report of eight cases and review of the literature.
        Psychosomatics. 2019; 60: 402-409
        • Centanni N.R.
        • Craig W.Y.
        • Whitesell D.L.
        • et al.
        Safety of ECT in patients receiving an oral anticoagulant.
        Ment Health Clin. 2021; 11: 254-258
        • Pluijms E.M.
        • Kamperman A.M.
        • Hoogendijk W.J.
        • et al.
        Influence of adjuvant antidepressant on efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Aust NZ J Psychiatry. 2021; 55: 366-380
        • Janjua A.U.
        • Dhingra A.L.
        • Greenberg R.
        • et al.
        The efficacy and safety of concomitant psychotropic medications and electroconvulsive therapy.
        CNS Drugs. 2020; 34: 509-520
        • Lao K.M.S.
        • Zhao J.
        • Blais J.E.
        Antipsychotics and risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a population-based cohort and case-crossover study.
        CNS Drugs. 2020; 34: 1165-1175
        • Murri M.B.
        • Guaglianone A.
        • Bugliani M.
        • et al.
        Second-generation antipsychotics and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a systematic case review and case report analysis.
        Drugs RD. 2015; 15: 45-62
        • Uchinuma N.
        • Yasuda K.
        • Iwata Y.
        • et al.
        Flumazenil for successful seizure induction with electroconvulsive therapy: case report and literature review.
        Clin Neuropharmacol. 2021; 44: 29-32
        • Yi J.
        • Torres J.
        • Azner Y.
        • et al.
        Flumazenil pretreatment in benzodiazepine-free patients: a novel method for managing declining ECT seizure quality.
        J ECT. 2012; 28: 185-189
        • Andrade C.
        • Arumgham S.S.
        • Thirthalli J.
        Adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2016; 39: 513-530
        • Mulder L.A.C.
        • Grootens K.P.
        The incidence of post-electroconvulsive therapy headache: a systematic review.
        J ECT. 2020; 36: e22-e28
        • Bozymski K.M.
        • Potter T.G.
        • Venkatachalam V.
        • et al.
        Caffeine sodium benzoate for electroconvulsive therapy augmentation.
        J ECT. 2018; 324: 233-239
        • Pinkhasov A.
        • Biglow M.
        • Chandra S.
        • et al.
        Pretreatment with caffeine citrate to increase seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy: a case series.
        J Pharm Pract. 2016; 29: 1770180
        • Coffey C.E.
        • Figiel G.S.
        • Weiner R.D.
        • et al.
        Caffeine augmentation of ECT.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1990; 147: 579-585
        • Ancill R.J.
        • Carlyle W.
        Oral caffeine augmentation of ECT.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149: 137
        • Anastasian Z.H.
        • Khan N.
        • Heyer E.
        • et al.
        Effect of atropine dose on heart rate during electroconvulsive therapy.
        J ECT. 2014; 30: 298-392
        • de Arriba-Arnau A.
        • Dalmau A.
        • Soria V.
        • et al.
        Protocolized hyperventilation enhances electroconvulsive therapy..
        J Affect Disord. 2017; : 225-232
        • Fink M.
        • Johnson L.
        Monitoring the duration of electroconvulsive therapy seizures: “cuff” and EEG methods.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982; 39: 1189-1191
        • Askay S.S.
        • Bumb J.M.
        • Janke C.
        • et al.
        New evidence for seizure quality improvement by hyperoxia and mild hypocapnia.
        J ECT. 2014; 30: 287-291
        • Gómez-Arnau J.
        • de Arriba-Arnau A.
        • Correas-Lauffer J.
        • et al.
        Hyperventilation and electroconvulsive therapy: a literature review.
        Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2018; 50: 54-62
        • McCormick A.S.
        • Saunders D.S.
        Oxygen desaturation of patients recovering from electroconvulsive therapy.
        Anaesthesia. 1996; 51: 702-704
        • Surve R.
        • Bansal S.
        • Sriganesh K.
        • et al.
        Incidence and risk factors for oxygen saturation during recovery from modified electroconvulsive therapy: a prospective observational study.
        J Anesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2015; 31: 99-103
        • Koyama Y.
        • Tzuzaki K.
        • Suzuki T.
        • et al.
        Prevention of oxygen desaturation in morbidly obese patients during electroconvulsive therapy: a narrative review.
        J ECT. 2020; 36: 161-167
        • Kronsell A.
        • Nordenskjold
        • Bell M.
        • et al.
        The effect of anaesthetic dose on response and remission in electroconvulsive therapy for major depressive disorder: a nationwide register-based cohort study.
        BJPsych Open. 2021; 23: e71
        • Lihua P.
        • Su M.
        • Ke W.
        • et al.
        Different regimens of intravenous sedatives or hypnotics for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adult patients with depression.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014; 2014: CD009763
        • Kellner C.H.
        • Bryson E.O.
        Electroconvulsive therapy anesthesia technique: minimalist versus maximally managed.
        J ECT. 2013; 29: 153-155
        • Bryson E.O.
        • Aloysi A.S.
        • Popeo D.M.
        • et al.
        Methohexital and succinylcholine dosing for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):actual versus ideal.
        J ECT. 2012; 28: e29-e30
        • Fredman B.
        • d’Etienne J.
        • Smith I.
        • et al.
        Anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: effects of propofol and methohexital on seizure activity and recovery.
        Anesth Analg. 1994; 79: 75-79
        • Geretsegger C.
        • Nickel M.
        • Judendorfer B.
        • et al.
        Propofol and methohexital as anesthetic agents for blind comparison of electroconvulsive therapy seizure quality, therapeutic efficacy, and cognitive performance.
        J ECT. 2007; 23: 239-243
        • Vaidya P.V.
        • Anderson E.L.
        • Bobb A.
        • et al.
        A within-subject comparison of propofol and methohexital anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy.
        J ECT. 2021; 28: 14-19
        • Tzabazis A.
        • Schmitt H.J.
        • Ihmsen H.
        • et al.
        Postictal agitation after electroconvulsive therapy: incidence, severity, and propofol as a treatment option.
        J ECT. 2013; : 189-195
        • Janouschek H.
        • Nickl-Jockschat T.
        • Haeck M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of methohexital and etomidate as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy in affective and psychotic disorders.
        J Pyschiatr Res. 2013; 47: 686-693
        • Singh P.M.
        • Arora S.
        • Borle A.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of etomidate for seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review.
        J ECT. 2015; 31: 213-225
        • Mehta D.
        • Palta S.
        • Gupta N.
        • et al.
        Comparison of effect of etomidate with propofol on hemodynamics during modified electroconvulsive therapy.
        J Anesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2022; 38: 104-110
        • Bryson E.O.
        • Ahle G.M.
        • Liebman L.S.
        • et al.
        Dosing and effectiveness of ketamine for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): a case series.
        Australas Psychiatry. 2014; 22: 467-469
        • Ainsworth N.J.
        • Sepehry A.A.
        • Vila-Rodriguez F.
        Effects of ketamine anesthesia on efficacy, tolerability, seizure response, and neurocognitive outcome in electroconvulsive therapy: a comprehensive meta-analysis of doubled-blind randomized controlled trials.
        J ECT. 2020; 36: 94-105
        • Aoki N.
        • Suwa T.
        • Kawashima H.
        • et al.
        Sevoflurane in electroconvulsive therapy; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2012; 141: 16-25
        • Andrade C.
        Anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: a niche role for sevoflurane.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2021; 82: 21f14173
        • Gasteiger L.
        • Heil M.
        • Hörner E.
        • et al.
        Relationship between anesthesia depth and quality of seizures in patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy: a prospective observational study.
        J ECT. 2022; 38: 62-67
        • Currier G.
        • Gianni M.A.
        Th effectiveness of BIS monitoring during electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Clin Anesth. 2016; 58: 100-104
        • Mirzakhani H.
        • Guchelaar H.J.
        • Welch C.A.
        • et al.
        Minimum effective doses of succinylcholine and rocuronium during electroconvulsive therapy: a prospective, randomized, crossover trial.
        Anesth Analg. 2016; 123: 587-596
        • Bryson E.W.O.
        • Kellner C.H.
        • Li E.H.
        • et al.
        Extreme variability in succinylcholine dose for muscle relaxation in electroconvulsive therapy.
        Australas Psychiatry. 2018; 26: 391-393
        • Kadoi Y.
        • Hoshi H.
        • Nishida A.
        • et al.
        Comparison of recovery times from rocuronium-induced muscle relaxation after reversal with three different doses of sugammadex and succinylcholine during elctroconvulsive therapy.
        J Anesth. 2011; 25: 855-859
        • Ittasakul P.
        • Jarernatt P.
        • Tor P.C.
        Prevalence and predictors of postictal confusion after electroconvulsive therapy.
        Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2021; 17: 283-289
        • Allen N.D.
        • Allison C.L.
        • Goleblowski R.
        • et al.
        Factors associated with postictal agitation after electroconvulsive therapy.
        J ECT. 2022; 38: 60-61